All posts by American Fenians

A Study Group about the Fenian Brotherhood to get a better understanding through historical research and scholarship of the Irish and the Fenian Brotherhood for the 1860-1870 period. Find us also on Facebook at Fenian Brotherhood's Emmet Circle of NY and NJ. Jim Madden is a published author, historian and research with an interest in the Irish in the Civil War and the Fenian Brotherhood in the Federal Armies.

San Francisco Fenian Ball advertisement

St Patrick’s Day for the Irish has always been a huge affair, especially in San Francisco where the Irish and the Fenian Brotherhood was thriving in the early 1870s.

A photo of passing interest to Fenian scholars, is this photo showing in the background showing a very large broadside on the fence to the back right which advertises the Fenian Brotherhood Civil Ball to take place on St Patrick’s Day at the Union Hall.

This stereoview of the “Central Pacific Rail Road Ferry, Davis Street” by Eadweard Muybridge, San Francisco shows the ticket office on Davis Street in the Embarcadero, San Francisco, with a large sign for the ferry connection across the bay to San Jose, Stockton, and Sacramento, and from Sacramento to Chicago and New York Via the CPRR.

The photo was likely taken in early March 1871 as Photographer Muybridge was about to embark on the Lighthouse Tender “Shubrick”, undertaking his 6 month journey to photograph the American west coastal lighthouses shortly there after.

There is also a newspaper advertisement for the same Fenian Brotherhood Military and Civil Ball at the Union Hall on the Evening of St Patrick’s Day, March 17, 1871, which appeared in the March 12th 1871 San Francisco Chronicle Edition, and was also seen in other editions leading up to the event. Before the ball, there was a High Mass in the morning of the 17th of March, followed by a parade by the Fenian Brotherhood and other Irish civic societies.

San Francisco was the center for Fenian Brotherhood activities and several Fenian Circles from the mid 1860’s to the mid 1870’s and was the base for the Pacific West Coast Fenians, with General John O’Neill and John Savage, president of the Senate wing of the Fenian Brotherhood, visiting San Francisco at different times for “business”.

“Perplexing” 1866 Fenian Weapons – Base Ball Bats?

Belvidire Nov 6 1866
Belvidere Standard, Nov 6, 1866 (Belvidere, Il)
While researching the Fenian Base Ball Clubs, (Base Ball being two words back then), there were several Clubs which popped up within cities with large Irish populations. The name indicated the political sentiment of Irish locals during the period after the American Civil War. From New Orleans, LA, Charleston, SC and Hartford, CT, as well as other Gaelic centers, these gentlemanly sports teams cropped up, notably in places where the Fenian Brotherhood was active.
batsWhether there is a correlation between these base ball clubs and the Fenian military companies, which drilled publicly or in local halls at the same time has yet to be seen. It was not unusual to have amateur teams being named after the ethnic make up of their players, as the Germans did the same, but it is interesting to see these sporting teams named after a political movement. Later we come to see teams named Shamrocks, Gaels, Celtics, and of course The Fighting Irish.
I came across this newspaper story in Nov 1866 while British North America/Canada was still on a heighten state of alert, a few months after the Fenian Raids in Canada East & West of June 1866. I can only imagine what Canadian custom inspectors where thinking when they opened these suspicious packages containing base ball equipment and trying to figure out how these strange weapons would be used by the Fenians to wage war against them again.
Catcher
Could this be the new Fenian army uniform outfitted for the next raid onto the Canadian border?

The Fenian Forty – an account of a 2nd NY Mounted Rifles Veteran and his role in the Fenian Raids of June 1866

The Fenian Forty is a rare veteran’s account of his and his comrades’ participation in the 1866 Fenian Raid into Canada.

The story appeared thirty years after the Raid, within the Buffalo Courier May 29, 1893 pages to remember the anniversary of the Irish attempt to take Canada by force. The author is a Civil War veteran from Buffalo who served in the 2nd New York Mounted Rifles and gathers thirty nine other veterans from his regiment for an “adventure”. While their part of Fenian operations has never been been documented (or verified) in other sources, it plays an interesting side story to the Fenian Raids. These civil war veterans, who were not under any formal command, did more reconnaissance and plundering in Canada then fighting, likely longing for and reliving the excitement they had seen for the last several years on campaign during the war.

Certain facts within the article do pan out as a true story. The mention of a “Mike Mahany”, is most likely Michael Mahanna of Co D of the 2nd NY Mounted Rifles. Mahanna enlisted in November 1863 for three years, promoted to corporal, however was later reduced in rank. He was mustered out with his company at Petersburg, Va on August 10, 1865.

The author indicated the Forty wore their 2nd NY Mounted Rifles uniforms into Canada. which were unique as their shell jackets had green cuffs and piping, very fitting for a Fenian Raid.

Unfortunately, tracking down the author, who is not mentioned purposely, still remains elusive. Several clues within this article narrow down the possibilities; from him holding a political office in 1893, being a high ranking officer in the veteran’s organization G.A.R., to joining up at a very young age with his brother and being of “French decent”. Hopefully after some sleuthing, we can uncover who this French Fenian may be.

** UPDATE ** The 1893 Author of the Fenian Forty story may have been found. After careful checking of military rosters of the 2nd New York Mounted Rifles for brothers, zeroing in on Co D as it’s mentioned in the story, French names as well as the mention of being only 13 years old at the time of his civil war enlistment. It appears that Private Joseph August Humbert is the man in the article. Other records show he was active politically in Buffalo and held several high positions within the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR). Humbert also continued to serve in the National Guard after the war, rising to the rank of Captain.

A link to his grave is proved here which also shows a photo of him: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/33335234/joseph-august-humbert

The Fenian Forty “Adventure” is below:

General Grant’s Handwritten November 1865 letter about the Fenians along the Canadian border

Recently a handwritten letter from Commanding General U. S. Grant, appeared at auction. It gives good insight as to how the US Government’s policy on the Fenian Brotherhood in America and the “laterebellion”. The letter is unsigned, contains three pages on two adjoining sheets, 7.75 x 9.75, with the Head Quarters Armies of the United States letterhead, dated November 26, 1865. This letter to Major General E. O. C. Ord, Commander of the Department of the Ohio, in full (spelling and grammar retained):

“Your letter of the 14th inst. to the Adj. Gen. of the Army stating that large Fenian organizations exist all along the Canada frontier and asking instructions in case they attempt to invade Canada is refered to me. Whilst the United States and Great Britten are at peace it is clearly our duty to prevent war being made upon her territory by Citizens of the States and also to prevent the fitting out and departure from our terrytory of hostile bodies of men of whatever Nationality they may be. Great Britten, or British officials have not observed this rule very closely towards us during the existence of the late rebellion. But this wrong doing is no justification for our following their example. You will therefore prevent all armed and equiped military organizations going from the United States into Canada where you can. It will not be necessary even for you to know that they are going for the purpose of making war upon a country with which we are at peace. It is sufficient to know that without the invitation of the Canadian authorities no organized Military Companies have a right to enter their country.
You must understand however that the force at your command is not to be used as a police force to discover the designs of the so called Fenians. The power of raising and organizing Military Companies exists all over the country. Militia or independent companies are being drilled every day. The scare got up about the Fenians need not attract our attention in the least. It is only when they or any Militia or other body of armed men attempt to go into another country, or out of ours, that you need interfere.”

Concluding blue pencil subscription and signature of Grant written by in a secretarial hand. In fine condition, with splitting to the hinge and folds, and two small tape stains to the lower blank area of the second page.

For more detail on the letter or the auction currently running, please visit: https://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/64152273_u-s-grant

A Fenian Overcoat for 10 Cents

Fenian Overcoats for 10 cents, that’s a bargain not many could pass up.

Surplus Army Overcoats Sold at Discount

In the winter of 1869, colorfully printed handbills were plastered around lower Manhattan and along the fences at City Hall Park, advertising this enticing offer that helped drive curiosity and foot traffic to the location listed on the flyer. Even in 1869, these printed handbill followed the long-standing marketing axiom: keep it simple (K.I.S.S.), reading:

Fenian Overcoat for Ten Cents
Reagan’s marketing strategy help pull patron’s into his establishment.

Had one followed their inquisitiveness, they wouldn’t have found themselves at a military surplus clothing store but at the doorsteps of “Reagan’s Saloon” at 5 Beekman Street in New York City, a newly furnished elegant tavern with rooms available that also featured a plush parlor, fashionable furnishings, gas lamps, fine liquors and cigars, of course being sold “at the lowest market prices”.

William H. Reagan, who put out these advertisements was a liquor merchant with a knack for marketing published various ads in local New York City newspapers about his liquor dealership and fine cigars, from several of his locations. These ads were usually several lines long and ran in The Irish American Weekly, NY Daily Graphic and the New York Herald. Reagan was also a supporter of the Irish charities and Irish causes.

A Fenian Coat
In 1867, the Fenian Brotherhood set forth uniform regulations, which called for using surplus Army Federal overcoats since they were so plentiful.

A Schenectady resident going by the nom de plume “Humanity” and drawn in by the Fenian Overcoat advertisement wrote to the local newspaper: “puzzled at the low price, and made enquires of a Hibernian. He said: “Why sir, it is aisy [easy] enough to understand, them folks wear their overcoats inside; it manes [means] a noggin uv [of] whiskey.”

A Fenian Overcoat was the name for Irish whiskey served straight, a single pour, unmixed, ungarnished and at room temperature. Several newspapers mentioned similar stories throughout the country of Irish whiskey straight now being called “Fenian Overcoats” attributing it to New York City.

The Fenian Overcoats was the hook, which drew in patrons, who knew the inside joke or believing they were getting a deal on winter clothing or maybe even wondering if the Fenian Brotherhood’s military, had accumulated so many overcoats in their quest to uniform their military that they were now selling overcoats at discounted prices, like the US military did right after the Civil War.

Reagan's Saloon Newspaper Ad
This ad ran weekly for several months at a time in New York City newspapers on and off from 1867-1870.

How the name came about is not exactly known, it could have been taken from an incident a few years early when thirty five winter overcoats were sent to Fenian prisoners captured in the June 1866 Invasions of Canada (West and East) awaiting trial and sentencing. During that winter, Fenian President William R. Roberts sent all of the Fenian prisoners overcoats, which were held by British customs until the duty tax was paid on them for coming into the county. This riled up the Fenians and caused delay in the much need overcoats reaching the prisoners who were suffering from the cold in British prisons because of their participation in efforts to establish an Irish Republic. Other speculation is the whiskey was Irish and so were the Fenians. It was a natural connection, plus a whiskey straight would warm one up in a cold winter’s day like an overcoat.

Whatever the reason, the “Fenian Overcoat” term for a whiskey straight lived on and seemed to have continued to be used during the height of the Fenian Brotherhood’s existence, well into the early 1880’s.

In November 1879, the Jersey City Evening Journal newspaper used this expression as if it was a common place phrase understood by their readers. It was reported: “a number of hoodlums employed at the Oil Docks Caven Point” went on a drinking spree up Monticello Ave, buying boots and flat topped hats, as well as investing in whiskey and old ale. “After a while they left off enriching their winter wardrobe and turned their entire attention to “Fenian Overcoats”. They got very “full” and correspondingly ugly.”

This was not going to be a good day for John Popka’s Saloon and taproom, where he served his own locally home brewed beer at 158 Monticello Ave in Jersey City. He advertised “selling the largest glass of good beer for the least amount of money”. After refusing to pay for their drinks, the hoodlums destroyed the place, and then wandered outside to other taprooms to eventually get into a fight among themselves. The newspaper pondered what their faces looked like the following morning as well as the oil docks must have been shorthanded the following day.

Then there was Poor Kate. Kate Ferguson was an Irish domestic servant and well known to the Jersey City police, the courts and the readers of the Jersey City Evening Journal. Her name had been mentioned numerous times within the newspaper’s columns over a span of more than 30 years, due to her arrests for her disorderly conduct, public drunkenness and being sent to the county hospital at Snake Hill to dry out. Kate had become a wretched serial tale within the pages of the newspaper because of her frequent antics over so many years as a perpetual nuisance. In another sad story to their readers, the paper chronicled yet one more episode of Kate’s on March 4th 1882:

She Went For Button

“Kate Ferguson, an old pensioner, left the Third Precinct station house yesterday to buy some buttons. At the first saloon she called on the woman who politely informed her that they did not sell buttons there, though they made a specialty of Fenian Overcoats. Kate promptly purchased an overcoat, and donned it paying ten cents for the article. She called at another saloon further up the street and was again astonished to learn that buttons were not to be secured even there. Her astonishment was so great that she was compelled to again secure another overcoat. She bought a number of other garments of the same sort before she secured any buttons – in fact, she didn’t get any at all. She got drunk, however, and created so great a disturbance that Officer Shandley took her into custody. This morning Justice Stilsing sentenced her to ten days’ imprisonment in the cell, which she has used right along as a pensioner.”

The “Fenian Overcoat” expression seemed to die out around the same time the Fenian Brotherhood organization was sputtering out and morphing into other similar Irish Republican groups, and we don’t see this term being used again.

So next time you decide to have an Irish whiskey, remember to make it a straight and raise your glasses to the Fenians and their heartwarming Fenian Overcoats.

A Fenian Overcoat
Raise your glass to the Fenians with a Fenian Overcoat
Sources: Schenectady Reflector, Dec 23, 1869, Courier Journal, Nov 29, 1866, Cleveland Leader, Jan 7, 1867, Irish American Weekly, Dec 19, 1868, Irish American Weekly, Nov 07, 1868, Buffalo Commercial, Dec 27, 1869, Daily Graphic, April 27, 1873, New York Herald, Dec 19, 1876, Jersey City Evening Journal, March 4, 1882, Jersey City Evening Journal, Nov 24, 1879, Warner, Chris, American Civil War: Union Infantry (Uniforms and Equipment) Almark Publishing Co, London, 1977, Todd, Frederick P. : American Military Equipage, 1851-1872, Vol 1, Company of Military Historians, Providence, 1974

The Fenian Brotherhood I.R.A. Belt Buckle

The Fenian Brotherhood military of 1866-1870 consisted of U.S. Army Civil War surplus with many companies formed into a militia type system either attached to local Fenian Circles, as their military wing or in a few cases part of the National Guard as a separate company in some states. They were commanded by former officers who served in the Civil War.

When Fenian President William B Robert’s Irish Republican Army troops invaded Canada in early June 1866, the soldiers wore a wide assortment of uniforms and civilian clothing. Most of these men were veterans of the American Civil War, who donned parts of their old uniforms, including US and Confederate CSA belt plates. Some Fort Erie witnesses testified in Canadian court rooms, they thought the United States had invaded Canada by the appearance of these soldiers and their uniforms.

There were only two companies of Fenians who wore something which resembled a military uniform, The Cleveland Rangers wearing green blouses and caps and the Louisville men who wore blue jackets with green facings. 1.

After the Fenian Raids, the Brotherhood needed an identity for their military and established new uniforms and new military regulations, dividing the States into military districts. The Fenian Brotherhood began to brand their military of this Irish National Organization – the “Irish Republican Army”.

The uniform developed were based on the US Federal military style with the Fenians choosing to include on their brass buttons and belt plates “I.R.A.”.

The I.R.A. buttons have become well know and seen as collector’s items. However, the I.R.A. belt buckle is not seen as frequent, and to some thought not to have existed.

Irish Republican Army buckle was part of the Fenian uniform adopted in their November 1866 military regulations. The Robert’s wing wore these belts along with their green or blue uniforms (shell jackets, green with yellow trim for cavalry and blue shell jackets with light blue trim (sometimes yellow) for infantry) with brass I.R.A. buttons in parades and drills. All uniforms, including rank and insignia, were to be purchased from Fenian Headquarters in New York for the cost of $12. 2.

The timing of these military regulations were intentional. The Fenian Raids of June 1866 into Canada, brought in a renewed hope to the movement as well as plenty of cash from eager supporters. The Fenians were intent to show they were still very much active and would continue to press on with another Canadian Invasion.

In December 1866, newspaper accounts reported President Robert’s preparing for a second run at Canada. Roberts met with an agent of the New Jersey Central Railroad Company to negotiate terms for ” all Fenians goods, arms, munitions of war and all Fenian troops”, to be carried for free of expense on their railroad. At the same time, Robert’s purchased 30,000 waist belt buckles of the old Virginia Militia. The buckles had on the front the words “Sic Semper Tyrannis” and “Virginia”. The “Virginia” was to be removed and the word “Ireland” substituted. 3.

No buckles as described ever appeared and it is more likely the brass, being bought cheaply after the war, was melted down

Buckle 2

to became the I.R.A. buckle that was shortly seen afterwards. The Brotherhood had also contracted for distinctive military uniforms as well as to button manufacturers, thus producing the I.R.A. buttons, in several styles at the time as well. The Fenian Brotherhood wanted to brand their military as the “Irish Republican Army”, establishing their Republic government as well as their military within the United States.

Newspaper reports verify the existence of the I.R.A. belt plate, clearly describing it. These buckles were also worn into action as part of the new uniforms. Fenian General John O’Neill, now president of the Roberts wing, against the consent of the Fenian Senate, decided to pull his fully uniformed Fenians together for another run into Canada in May 1870, and this time to the same battleground as the 1866 Eastern Fenian Raid.

The results were disastrous. It was poorly executed as plans were infiltrated by a British spy, who also happened to be the Chief of Fenian Ordinanc and went about sabotaging the entire operation. The trusted spy revealed the details to the Canadians Authorities who were waiting for the Irish Republican Army. O’Neill was arrested for violating the American Neutrality agreement by a US Marshal before the battle even began. The Fenian Raid fell apart even before it started.

The New York Herald reported from Cook’s Corner, St Armand, Canada East on May 25, 1870. “The Fenian demonstration has ended at last and the country on both sides of the line can feel free from all danger of an immediate invasion of the invading aspirants for an Irish Republic… The officers all wore swords, and concealed their uniforms with overcoats. The privates were attired in short blue and green jackets, trimmed with orange braid, and wore army pantaloons. The belts bore the insignia I.R.A. In point of equipment the men are sadly wanting. Very few canteens or haversacks were visible, and their cartridge boxes showed evidence of much use. They were armed with the new patent Meade breech-loading rifle.” 4.

Also reported in stories and articles recounting the battle in 1872: “The company of the 69th Regiment, which had been acting as a support to the skirmishers, was now brought into line at the double, and throwing close and rapid volleys into the breastwork, pushed quickly into and through the hop fields, then over the open space beyond until the flanked defense was gained. Behind it the ground was covered with debris of the fleeing force. Swords, scabbards, breech-loading rifles, leather cartridge pouches, gray canvas knapsacks, pieces of pork, unscabbarded bayonets, waist-belts engraved with I.R.A.”Irish Republican Army;” everything in fact, except the soldiers themselves.” 5.

Later, this style buckle shows up in London at Ludgate Hill Station in 1884, during the O’Donavan Rossa Fenian Dynamite Campaign. An undetonated bomb with shrapnel containing this same IRA belt buckle. Fenian O’Donavan Rossa had set up a Dynamite School in America, and it is likely one of the Fenian Veterans had this American IRA buckle laying around from his service years before and included into the explosive for a more deadly purpose. The belt pate, with other metal shrapnel had been on display at the Metropolitan Police Black Museum in London.

Irish Plate

1. Cleveland Daily Leader, June 4, 1866. New York News, June 7, 1866
2. The World, NY Nov 13,1866
3. London Evening Standard – Dec 28, 1866
4. New York Herald, May 26, 1870 & Belfast Morning News – Jun 10, 1870
5. Stamford Mercury, June 28, 1872 also St James’s Magazine, Volume 30 – P317 W Kent 187